But while the House set the cap at $100,000 for individuals, $150,000 for single parents and $200,000 for couples, the Senate lowered them to placate moderates who wanted the payments to be more targeted.

Instead, the Senate bill would set the cap at $80,000 for individuals, $120,000 for single parents and $160,000 for couples, meaning those earning more than that would not receive checks.

The last stimulus package passed in December partly restored a federal unemployment payment that lapsed last summer, offering $300 per week and extending it through March 14. The House bill increased the benefit in line with Mr. Biden’s proposal, but the Senate, where moderates balked at raising the payment, left it the same.

The House version would provide a more generous benefit of $400 per week through Aug. 29. The Senate measure would provide $300 per week through Sept. 6.

The Senate bill would also exempt $10,200 in unemployment benefits received in 2020 from federal income taxes for households making less than $150,000.

Both the House and Senate also sought to help workers who lost their jobs keep their employer-provided health insurance coverage, but the Senate bill is more generous. The House measure would cover 85 percent of premiums through a program called COBRA through September, while the Senate measure would cover the full cost of those premiums.

The two bills differ in a variety of other areas. The Senate added a provision that would exempt student loan forgiveness from income taxes through 2025, a step that comes amid pressure on Mr. Biden to cancel student loan debt through executive action.

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